Research


Demographic Characteristics, Behavioral Problems, and IQ Profiles of Dyslexic Children at Dyslexia Association of Indonesia during January-June 2019: A Quantitative Study


Irma Rachmawati, Kristiantini Dewi Soegondo, Purboyo Solek
Dyslexia Association of Indonesia
Indigrow Child Development Center, Indonesia


Abstract

Dyslexia is one of the most common causes of learning difficulties in children and Dyslexia Association of Indonesia as a center of diagnostic and intervention of dyslexia children has served more than 800 cases since 2005. However, studies on dyslexia in Indonesia were still very few comparing to the extent of the problem which need solutions. The study was conducted to know the demographic characteristics, IQ profiles, and behavioral problems of dyslexic children during the study period. Data were collected from medical record. There were 133 dyslexia children administered in the study, dominantly male (101 cases, 76%). Most of them were diagnosed at the age of 4-6 year old (56.5%) and 7-9 year old (33.8%) with median age of diagnosis at 79 months. About 66 (49.6%) were primary school students and 53 (39.9%) were preschoolers. Result showed that 4 (3%) of children have mild dyslexia, 44 (33%) have moderate dyslexia, 56 (42%) have severe dyslexia, 17 (13%) were at risk of dyslexia, and 12 (9%) have no severity defined, yet. Seventy nine children (60%) had comorbidities, among them 68.4% had dyscalculia and dysgraphia, 27.8% had dyspraxia, 24.1% with poor self-esteem and anxiety disorders, and 36.1% had behavioral problems (ADHD, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder). The IQ profiles (WISC, Griffith, or WPPSI) showed that 45.8% children had average IQ, 21.3% with superior IQ, 6.4% with very superior IQ, and 2.1% was gifted (FIQ median: 101.5). Gap were found between the VIQ and PIQ (median 14.5), whereby most children (69.2%) had VIQ less than their PIQ. These findings gave vivid picture to understand the IQ profile of dyslexic children and that dyslexia is not only about reading difficulties, but also includes comorbidities like behavioral problems that might cause academic problems despite progression of child’s reading ability.

Keywords: dyslexia, characteristics, IQ profiles, behavioral problems

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